灵犀弄影

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北约声明:俄罗斯欺骗了全世界


北约声明:俄罗斯欺骗了全世界


前言:俄罗斯突然进攻乌克兰,已有八天了。俄罗斯为了证明它发动战争的正义性和必要性,宣称它受到了来自北约的威胁,被北约欺骗了。在此,让我们看看北约组织的正式回应。

译文:

误区一:北约向俄罗斯承诺冷战后不会扩张

事实:从未达成过这样的协议。自1949年成立以来,北约的大门一直向新成员敞开——这一点从未改变。这一“门户开放政策”载入北约创始条约第10条,该条规定“任何其他欧洲国家有能力推进本条约的原则并为北大西洋的安全做出贡献”都可以申请加入。成员资格的决定由所有盟国协商一致作出。美国、欧洲和俄罗斯签署的任何条约都没有包含关于加入北约的条款。

1989年,北约扩张超越统一德国的想法并未提上日程,尤其是在华约仍然存在的情况下。米哈伊尔·戈尔巴乔夫(Mikhail Gorbachev)在2014年的一次采访中证实了这一点:“‘北约扩张’这个话题根本没有被讨论过,那些年也没有提出来。我这样说是负有全部责任的。没有一个东欧国家甚至在1991年华沙条约不复存在之后也没有提出这个问题。西方领导人也没有提出这个问题。”

解密的白宫记录还显示,1997年,比尔·克林顿 (Bill Clinton)一直拒绝鲍里斯·叶利钦(Boris Yeltsin)提出的“君子协定”,即任何前苏联共和国都不会加入北约:“我不能代表北约做出承诺,我也不是就任何国家而言,我自己将处于否决北约扩张的立场,更不用说让你或其他任何人这样做了……北约以协商一致的方式运作。”

误区二:北约咄咄逼人,对俄罗斯构成威胁

事实:北约是一个防御性联盟,其目的是保护我们的成员。北约的官方政策是“联盟不寻求对抗,不对俄罗斯构成威胁”。北约没有入侵格鲁吉亚;北约没有入侵乌克兰。行入侵之实的是俄罗斯。

在过去的30年里,北约一直在公开地与俄罗斯接触。我们在从禁毒和反恐到潜艇救援和民事应急计划等问题上进行了合作——即使在北约扩大期间也是如此。然而,2014年,为应对俄罗斯对乌克兰的侵略行动,北约暂停了与俄罗斯的务实合作。我们不寻求对抗,但我们不能忽视俄罗斯违反国际规则,破坏我们的稳定和安全。

为应对俄罗斯对乌克兰动用武力,2016年北约向波罗的海国家和波兰部署了四个多国战斗群。这些部队并非永久驻扎在该地区,符合盟国的国际承诺,兵力约为5000人。他们不会对俄罗斯100万强大的军队构成威胁。在俄罗斯非法吞并克里米亚之前,联盟东部没有盟军部队。

北约仍然愿意与俄罗斯进行有意义的对话。这就是为什么北约秘书长延斯·斯托尔滕贝格邀请北约-俄罗斯理事会所有成员参加一系列会议,讨论欧洲安全问题,包括乌克兰及其周边地区的局势、北约-俄罗斯关系以及军备控制和防扩散问题。

误区三:乌克兰不能加入北约

事实:北约盟国欢迎乌克兰加入北约的愿望,他们支持在2008年布加勒斯特峰会上作出的乌克兰将成为北约成员的决定。

关于加入北约的决定取决于每个申请人和30个北约盟国。其他国家不得干预。俄罗斯无权干预,也不能否决这一进程。

像每个国家一样,乌克兰拥有选择自己的安全措施的主权权利。这是欧洲安全的一项基本原则,俄罗斯也签署了这一原则,包括通过赫尔辛基最终法案(1975年)、巴黎宪章(1990年)、北约-俄罗斯成立法案(1997年)和欧洲宪章安全(1999年)。

误区四:北约正在包围并试图遏制俄罗斯

事实:北约是一个防御性联盟,其目的是保护我们的成员国。我们的演习和军事部署不针对俄罗斯——或任何其他国家。

这个论调也忽略了地理因素。俄罗斯只有6%的陆地边界与北约国家接触。俄罗斯与14个国家有陆地边界。其中只有五个是北约成员国。

在北约领土之外,北约仅在科索沃和伊拉克有军事部署。驻科部队维和任务是在联合国安理会授权下执行的。

北约在伊拉克的非战斗任务有助于打击恐怖主义,是应伊拉克政府的要求在充分尊重伊拉克主权的情况下执行的。相比之下,俄罗斯在三个国家——格鲁吉亚、摩尔多瓦和乌克兰——在未经其政府同意的情况下拥有军事基地和士兵。俄罗斯还在乌克兰边境集结了超过100,000名士兵,并威胁要入侵乌克兰。

误区五:北约对南斯拉夫、科索沃和利比亚的干预行动证明,北约不是防御性的

事实:前南斯拉夫并没有因为北约而解体。联盟没有使用武力改变前南斯拉夫的边界。从1992年到1995年,北约在波斯尼亚进行了几次军事行动,包括实施禁飞区和为联合国维和人员提供空中支援。这些活动由联合国安理会授权,俄罗斯是其成员。1995年北约对波斯尼亚塞族阵地的空袭为代顿和平协议铺平了道路,该协议结束了造成超过100,000人死亡的波斯尼亚战争。从1996年起,北约在波斯尼亚领导多国维和部队,其中包括来自俄罗斯的部队。欧盟于2004年接管了该任务。

2011年北约领导的利比亚行动是在联合国安理会 1970年和1973年两项决议(UNSCR)的授权下启动的,俄罗斯均未反对。联合国安理会1973年授权国际社会“采取一切必要措施”以“保护受到攻击威胁的平民和平民居住区”。这就是北约所做的,得到了地区国家和阿拉伯联盟成员国的政治和军事支持。

北约于1999年在科索沃开展行动之前,联合国和联络小组(俄罗斯是其成员)为结束冲突进行了一年多的紧张外交努力。联合国安理会一再将科索沃的种族清洗和不断增加的难民人数列为对国际和平与安全的威胁。北约的使命有助于结束大规模和持续的侵犯人权和杀害平民的行为。驻科部队是北约在科索沃正在进行的维和任务,具有联合国安理会的授权(UNSCR 1244),并得到贝尔格莱德和普里什蒂纳的支持。

原文:

Myth 1: NATO promised Russia it would not expand after the Cold War

Fact: Such an agreement was never made. NATO’s door has been open to new members since it was founded in 1949 – and that has never changed. This “Open Door Policy” is enshrined in Article 10 of NATO’s founding treaty, which says “any other European State in a position to further the principles of this Treaty and to contribute to the security of the North Atlantic” can apply for membership. Decisions on membership are taken by consensus among all Allies. No treaty signed by the United States, Europe and Russia included provisions on NATO membership.

The idea of NATO expansion beyond a united Germany was not on the agenda in 1989, particularly as the Warsaw Pact still existed. This was confirmed by Mikhail Gorbachev in an interview in 2014: "The topic of 'NATO expansion' was not discussed at all, and it wasn't brought up in those years. I say this with full responsibility. Not a single Eastern European country raised the issue, not even after the Warsaw Pact ceased to exist in 1991. Western leaders didn't bring it up, either."

Declassified White House transcripts also reveal that, in 1997, Bill Clinton consistently refused Boris Yeltsin's offer of a 'gentlemen's agreement' that no former Soviet Republics would enter NATO: "I can't make commitments on behalf of NATO, and I'm not going to be in the position myself of vetoing NATO expansion with respect to any country, much less letting you or anyone else do so…NATO operates by consensus."

Myth 2: NATO is aggressive and a threat to Russia

Fact: NATO is a defensive alliance, whose purpose is to protect our members. NATO’s official policy is that "the Alliance does not seek confrontation and poses no threat to Russia." NATO didn’t invade Georgia; NATO didn’t invade Ukraine. Russia did.

NATO has reached out to Russia consistently and publicly over the past 30 years. We worked together on issues ranging from counter-narcotics and counter-terrorism to submarine rescue and civil emergency planning – even during periods of NATO enlargement. However, in 2014, in response to Russia's aggressive actions against Ukraine, NATO suspended practical cooperation with Russia. We do not seek confrontation, but we can’t ignore Russia breaking international rules, undermining our stability and security.

In response to Russia's use of military force against Ukraine, NATO deployed four multinational battlegroups to the Baltic States and Poland in 2016. These units are not permanently based in the region, are in line with Allies’ international commitments, and amount to around 5,000 troops. They do not pose a threat to Russia’s 1,000,000 strong army. Before Russia's illegal annexation of Crimea, there were no Allied troops in the eastern part of the Alliance.

NATO remains open to meaningful dialogue with Russia. That is why NATO Secretary General Jens Stoltenberg has invited all members of the NATO-Russia Council to a series of meetings to discuss European security, including the situation in and around Ukraine, NATO-Russia relations, and arms control and non-proliferation. 

Myth 3: Ukraine cannot join NATO

Fact: NATO Allies welcome Ukraine’s aspirations to join NATO and they stand by the decision made at the 2008 Bucharest Summit that Ukraine will become a member of the Alliance.

Decisions regarding NATO membership are up to each individual applicant and the 30 NATO Allies. No one else. Russia has no right to intervene and cannot veto this process.

Like every country, Ukraine has the sovereign right to choose its own security arrangements. This is a fundamental principle of European security, one that Russia has also signed up to, including through the Helsinki Final Act(1975), the Charter of Paris(1990), the NATO-Russia Founding Act(1997) and the Charter for European Security (1999).

Myth 4: NATO is encircling and trying to contain Russia

Fact: NATO is a defensive alliance, whose purpose is to protect our member states. Our exercises and military deployments are not directed against Russia – or any other country.

This myth also ignores geography. Only 6% of Russia’s land borders touch NATO countries. Russia has land borders with 14 countries. Only five of them are NATO members.

Outside NATO territory, the Alliance only has a military presence in Kosovo and Iraq. The KFOR peacekeeping mission is carried out with a United Nations Security Council mandate.

NATO's non-combat mission in Iraq contributes to the fight against terrorism and is carried out at the request of the Iraqi government, with full respect for Iraq's sovereignty. In contrast, Russia has military bases and soldiers in three countries – Georgia, Moldova, and Ukraine – without the consent of their governments. Russia also has amassed over 100,000 troops on Ukraine’s border and is threatening to invade Ukraine.

Myth 5: NATO's interventions in the former Yugoslavia, Kosovo and Libya prove that the Alliance is not defensive

Fact: The former Yugoslavia did not break up because of NATO. The Alliance did not use military force to change borders in the former Yugoslavia. From 1992-1995, NATO conducted several military operations in Bosnia, including enforcing a no-fly-zone and providing air support for UN peacekeepers. These activities were mandated by the United Nations Security Council, of which Russia is a member. NATO air strikes against Bosnian Serb positions in 1995 helped pave the way for the Dayton peace agreement, which ended the war in Bosnia that had killed over 100,000 people. From 1996 onwards, NATO led multinational peacekeeping forces in Bosnia, which included troops from Russia. The European Union took over that mission in 2004.

The NATO-led operation in Libya in 2011 was launched under the authority of two UN Security Council Resolutions(UNSCR), 1970 and 1973, neither of which was opposed by Russia. UNSCR 1973 authorized the international community "to take all necessary measures" to "protect civilians and civilian populated areas under threat of attack". This is what NATO did, with the political and military support of regional states and members of the Arab League.

NATO’s operation in Kosovo in 1999 followed over a year of intense diplomatic efforts by the UN and the Contact Group, of which Russia was a member, to end the conflict. The UN Security Council repeatedly branded the ethnic cleansing in Kosovo and the mounting number of refugees as a threat to international peace and security. NATO's mission helped to end large-scale and sustained violations of human rights and the killing of civilians. KFOR, NATO’s ongoing peacekeeping mission in Kosovo, has a UNSC mandate (UNSCR 1244) and is supported by both Belgrade and Pristina.

原文链接:

https://www.nato.int/cps/en/natohq/115204.htm

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