临时用离散云
临时用离散云

简中互联网难民,在此倾注不灿烂的文字。

健康生活|怎么吃才能瘦下来(一)

假如找不到生命的意义和目标,可以试试生命力模型。85%的人改善“我与我身体的关系”,就能感受到生命力受到激活。从瘦身饮食方法开始,结合HubermanLab创始人Andrew Huberman播客内容,和我的个人体会简单聊聊怎么吃才能瘦下来、健康起来。

💡 假如找不到生命的意义和目标,可以试试生命力模型。生命力的结构:我与我身体、我与身边人、我与我的心灵的关系。85%的人改善“我与我身体的关系”,就能感受到生命力受到激活。(观点来源Dr. Phil Stutz)

从我与身体的关系起步,写一写探索生命力起步阶段,我的个人感受和实践。

本文选择从瘦身饮食方法开始谈起。

在中国社会四分五裂的现状下,研究瘦身却几乎是所有人都能聊得上来的话题,毕竟大多数运动都难以坚持,但仅从吃下手、却看起来不难。不过,一谈到具体的饮食方法论,又是各自表述。

关于健康饮食网上已经有非常多的原理和方法论,聚会时讨论减重几乎可以让每个人都能说上两句,可是,即使是在科学研究领域,新研究和论述都在层出不穷,所以没有绝对正确的方法,自己的身体要自己关照。


关于间歇性禁食

  • 关于8+16饮食方法,背后的研究和理论不在本文的探讨范围,感兴趣可以网上搜论文文献。需要关注的是,尽管我长期自称8-16瘦身主义者,但我在听到Andrew这期播客之前,我发现自己是伪间歇饮食执行者。比如816的严格定义是从第一口饭到最后一口之间限制8小时;比如8小时以外的不是喝咖啡,是喝美式/浓缩,任何含奶的咖啡都不满足条件;比如工作日时间窗固定但进食时间在周末打破会需要两到三天恢复期,这其实让工作日816的禁食成就大打折扣;比如其实严格时间定义不是最重要的,重要的是规律地维持这个窗口在既定时间开始既定时间结束,所以维持12-12也不是不可以;再例如,即使不是为了瘦身,间歇禁食也能帮助我们减少其它疾病的可能性,毕竟追求瘦其实是避免胖的副作用。
  • 我不是严格的早饭一派,我不觉得吃早饭会直接导致胆结石和其它疾病。*除非和家人同住一段时间时我会跟家人的节奏一同进食,我自己安排进食时不吃早饭。
  • 以下是对播客Andrew Restricted Eating on Fat Loss & Health Effects of Fasting & Time Restricted Eating on Fat Loss & Health - Huberman Lab 的内容takeaway:

intermittent fasting间歇性禁食,有利于肝脏健康、脏器健康、血糖健康、大脑清醒。

【醒来一小时别吃,睡前三小时别吃,因为睡觉比饮食更加重要,Andrew还认为锻炼的前提是睡个好觉,可见睡眠的重要意义,而我们往往忽略】

the first hour, after you wake up and potentially for longer to not ingest any food.

the second major pillar that's well supported by research is that for the two and ideally three hours prior to bedtime, you also don't ingest any food or liquid calories for that.

So one thing is certain, that you want your eating window to be tacked or attached to your sleep based fasting in a way that makes it easier for you to get into the fasted state for a period of time.

sleep is vital and eating too close to sleep will disrupt that fasting related sleep.

【你以为自己已经不在吃饭了,但实际上你还在吃,肠胃没有排空、血液中的胰岛素还在作用】

learning to gauge food volume is important.

Also foods that include some fats or a lot of fats will tend to slow gastric emptying time.

if you want to select an eight hour feeding window, then you should probably focus on a six or seven hour.

feeding window because in reality, your feeding window is going to be longer reality, meaning real life constraints.

But it shifting around that can cause disruptions in the circadian clock mechanisms that cause disruptions in the downstream effects of eating that are taking at least two to three days to recover from.

【超级规律限制自己的时间窗口】

And perhaps even more important than that is that it be fairly regular where that feeding window resides.

I've more or less been alluding to the fact that when you eat, there's some period of time afterwards in which you're actually still eating, at least from the perspective of metabolism, because glucose is up, insulin is up and you're undergoing different metabolic and digestive processes that don't really speak to you being in a fasted state, right?

So there's a fun and exciting concept related to this, which is glucose clearing.

【饭后20分钟的小运动,帮助胰岛素排空】

You may have heard the old adage that if you take a 20 or 30 minute walk after dinner, that it accelerates the rate at which you digest that food.

you can accelerate that considerably by taking a 20 or 30 minute just light walk, it doesn't have to be speed walking. It certainly doesn't have to be jogging, but just walking outside or moving around.

if you can't get outside, some people will go through the gymnastics, literally of doing things like air squats and pushups.

【一克糖都是不可以的;16小时时期,可以摄入咖啡因、柠檬盐水】

if people ingest even one, one gram of sugar post dinner, if they had a full meal for dinner that can actually disrupt the expression of some of the circadian genes related to fasting and to sleep and sleep related fasting.

This is especially true for people that are using caffeine because when you ingest caffeine, you actually excrete a lot of water, it has a diarrhetic effect.

And with that water goes salt.

So it actually causes you to excrete sodium.

【为什么是8小时,为什么不是12小时或者一天一顿?】

And when I say ideal, I mean, what are the variables that are negotiable?

What are the ones that are non-negotiable?

What is ideal for you will depend on the context of your life and what you are willing to do consistently.

you want to avoid ingesting any food of any kind, even one gram of sugar, remember, this is the ideal one gram of sugar even would be too much.

an eight hour feeding window as a target seems to be the best target feeding, at least by my read of the literature.

And in discussing it with shuts such in shorter feeding windows of four to six hours, tend to lead to overeating and potentially increases in weight.

One meal per day type eating do not seem to do that, but those are special cases in that most people can't adhere to a one meal per day type schedule, at least not on a regular basis.


关于神经性饮食

  • 大多数人的神经性进食是暴食,当然也有禁食的人,但我只讨论我自己熟悉的模式:过度饮食。
  • 要澄清的事情是,我仍然没有找到避免神经性进食的完全解决方案,但我确实用一些方法降低了神经性进食的可能性:识别、寻找原因、减少情境接触。我常常明明不饿却还在吃东西、肚子饱了但嘴还没停下来、22点以后突然想吃罪恶炸鸡。这种进食状态多半因为工作压力,在紧张的一天工作之后,我只想当沙发土豆,而选择了躺在舒服的靠椅上,腿和身体呈现90度时,胃感觉不到“饱腹”,电视一集一集播放,零食不断地送入嘴里……所以我把零食藏在家里的角落,不会让零食在容易接触的视线范围内。吃饱后立即刷牙(牙刷、牙线、漱口水,一套繁琐流程),不给自己再进食的机会。
  • 以下是对播客Andrew Healthy Eating & Eating Disorders Healthy Eating & Eating Disorders - Anorexia, Bulimia, Binging - Huberman Lab 的内容takeaway:

Why we overeat?

  • From evolutionary standpoint, we should eat as fast/much/often as possible, there are circuits in the brain to reward of this behavior.
  • Homeostasis & Reward system/decisions
  • Homeostatic processes, that regulate the different systems in your body.

Reward system

  • Decision making is pretty good, but their habits are disrupted. So they are not even consciously aware of the fact that they are making terrible discisions.

How do you break a habit?

  • Constraint types of behaviors. Keep oneself from the temptation.
  • Notice that those things are happening, and then can start to intervene.

Two main features of anorexics:

  • Weak central coherence, is an inability to see the forest through the trees. Lost the ability to see the picture.
  • Chanllenging in shifting.


补充其它进食相关的个人建议

  1. 意识到自己在吃些什么,用文字或图片记录每次饮食,fun fact我们其实总在吃东西,有研究发现,算上零嘴时间有的人一天吃8餐
  2. 细嚼慢咽,吃饭专心,正念饮食,多少有点耸人听闻的说法是You are what you eat
  3. 大量饮水1.5L以上,餐前半小时500Ml水
  4. 不吃零食,不主动摄入精制糖,一定要吃就只吃半袋且同其它不减肥人士分享,不要成为别人减肥路上的绊脚石
  5. 用水果或者坚果代替任何零嘴,当然最好的办法是不吃
  6. 禁止吸烟饮酒,若一定饮酒每次最多150ml红酒或一杯啤酒


参考资料


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